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Researchers link two human brains together for question-and-answer experiment

Called PLOS ONE, the experiment is thought to be the first to show that two brains can be directly linked to allow one person to correctly guess what’s on the other’s mind. According to assistant professor of psychology and researcher at UW’s Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences, Andrea Stocco, it’s the most complex brain-to-brain experiment that’s been done to date in humans. So how exactly does this work? The first participant, or respondent, wears a cap connected to an electroencephalography (EEG) machine that records electrical brain activity. The respondent is then shown an object, such as a dog, on a computer screen, and the second participant, known as the inquirer, sees a list of possible objects and associated questions. By clicking the mouse, the inquirer sends a question and the respondent answers “yes” or “no” by focusing on one of two flashing LED lights attached to the monitor, which flash at different frequencies.

Researchers link two human brains together for question-and-answer experiment was originally published on E3 Technologies

January 11, 2016 Posted by | BioTech, Blue Technologies, Blue Technology, E3 Technologies, Green Technologies, NanoTech, New Technologies, NewsUpdate, Technology | , , , , , , | Comments Off on Researchers link two human brains together for question-and-answer experiment

NIST Team Breaks Distance Record for Quantum Teleportation

For Immediate Release: September 22, 2015

Contact: Laura Ost – 301-497-4880

BOULDER, Colo.—Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have “teleported” or transferred quantum information carried in light particles over 100 kilometers (km) of optical fiber, four times farther than the previous record.

The experiment confirmed that quantum communication is feasible over long distances in fiber. Other research groups have teleported quantum information over longer distances in free space, but the ability to do so over conventional fiber-optic lines offers more flexibility for network design.
Quantum Teleportation Infographic
Credit: K. Irvine/NIST
See full-size infographic
Not to be confused with Star Trek’s fictional “beaming up” of people, quantum teleportation involves the transfer, or remote reconstruction, of information encoded in quantum states of matter or light. Teleportation is useful in both quantum communications and quantum computing, which offer prospects for novel capabilities such as unbreakable encryption and advanced code-breaking, respectively. The basic method for quantum teleportation was first proposed more than 20 years ago and has been performed by a number of research groups, including one at NIST using atoms in 2004.
The new record, described in Optica,* involved the transfer of quantum information contained in one photon—its specific time slot in a sequence—to another photon transmitted over 102 km of spooled fiber in a NIST laboratory in Colorado.
The lead author, Hiroki Takesue, was a NIST guest researcher from NTT Corp. in Japan. The achievement was made possible by advanced single-photon detectors designed and made at NIST.
“Only about 1 percent of photons make it all the way through 100 km of fiber,” NIST’s Marty Stevens says. “We never could have done this experiment without these new detectors, which can measure this incredibly weak signal.”
Until now, so much quantum data was lost in fiber that transmission rates and distances were low. The new NTT/NIST teleportation technique could be used to make devices called quantum repeaters that could resend data periodically in order to extend network reach, perhaps enough to eventually build a “quantum internet.” Previously, researchers thought quantum repeaters might need to rely on atoms or other matter, instead of light, a difficult engineering challenge that would also slow down transmission.
Various quantum states can be used to carry information; the NTT/NIST experiment used quantum states that indicate when in a sequence of time slots a single photon arrives. The teleportation method is novel in that four of NIST’s photon detectors were positioned to filter out specific quantum states. (See graphic for an overview of how the teleportation process works.) The detectors rely on superconducting nanowires made of molybdenum silicide.** They can record more than 80 percent of arriving photons, revealing whether they are in the same or different time slots each just 1 nanosecond long. The experiments were performed at wavelengths commonly used in telecommunications.
Because the experiment filtered out and focused on a limited combination of quantum states, teleportation could be successful in only 25 percent of the transmissions at best. Thanks to the efficient detectors, researchers successfully teleported the desired quantum state in 83 percent of the maximum possible successful transmissions, on average. All experimental runs with different starting properties exceeded the mathematically significant 66.7 percent threshold for proving the quantum nature of the teleportation process.
As a non-regulatory agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce, NIST promotes U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards and technology in ways that enhance economic security and improve our quality of life. To learn more about NIST, visit www.nist.gov.
* H. Takesue, S.D. Dyer, M.J. Stevens, V. Verma, R.P. Mirin, and S.W. Nam. 2015. Quantum teleportation over 100 km of fiber using highly efficient superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors. Optica Vol. 2, Issue 10, page 832. DOI: 10.1364/OPTICA.2.000832 
** The molybdenum silicide is an advance in the detector design described in the 2011 NIST Tech Beat article, “Key Ingredient: Change in Material Boosts Prospects of Ultrafast Single-photon Detector.”

NIST Team Breaks Distance Record for Quantum Teleportation was originally published on E3 Technologies

January 11, 2016 Posted by | BioTech, Blue Technologies, Blue Technology, E3 Technologies, Green Technologies, New Technologies, NewsUpdate, NIST, Technology | , , , , , , , , , , | Comments Off on NIST Team Breaks Distance Record for Quantum Teleportation

Fiber Optic Sensing System (FOSS) monitors multiple critical parameters in real time

The FOSS technology developed at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center represents a major breakthrough in high-speed operational monitoring and sensing technology. Driven by ultra-efficient algorithms, FOSS can be used to determine in real time a variety of critical parameters, including strain, shape deformation, temperature, liquid level, strength, and operational loads. The system processes information at rates up to 5,000 times per second, representing a 1,000-fold improvement over conventional fiber optic technologies. In addition, it offers unprecedented levels of data density, as each 40-foot hair-like optical fiber provides up to 2,000 data points with adjustable spatial resolution.

How It Works

NASA Armstrong’s novel approach to fiber optic sensing utilizes FBG sensors. The real strength of lightweight FBGs resides in its capability to be multiplexed serially. This means that a single optical fiber can contain thousands of discrete FBG sensors along its length using the OFDR or WDM multiplexing scheme. A narrowband wavelength swept laser interrogates the FBG sensors as they respond to strain resulting from stress or pressure on the structure.

The real-time algorithms and processing system measure strain at multiple locations along the length of the fiber while attached to the surface of a structure. The strain data can be correlated into displacement data, thereby displaying the shape and movement of the optical fiber (and therefore the shape and movement of the attached structure). The system calculates deformation at each measurement location in real time while the vehicle, device, or structure is in service. FOSS detects changes during operation without affecting the intrinsic properties of the structure to which it is attached.

Full Story – http://www.nasa.gov/offices/ipp/centers/dfrc/technology/Fiber-Optic-Sensing-Suite.html

Fiber Optic Sensing System (FOSS) monitors multiple critical parameters in real time was originally published on E3 Technologies

September 12, 2015 Posted by | Blue Technologies, Blue Technology, Green Technologies, NanoTech, NewsUpdate, Technology | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Comments Off on Fiber Optic Sensing System (FOSS) monitors multiple critical parameters in real time