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Emerging Technologies

Over the last decade there have been many new technologies developed and entered into the public domain for development and commercialization.  Some arrive more or less as usable things; others mainly set the stage for innovations that emerge later. This series of articles will cover over 100 of these emerging technologies.  Along with the article briefs and related links we have created related courses in our educational labs located at and  With this series we are hoping to open our readers to the new worlds in store for exploring.

Some of the upcoming topics – Brain-Machine Interface, Flexible Transitors, Biometrics, Natural Language Processing, Microphotonics, Wireless Sensor Networks, Injectable Tissue Engineering, Nano Solar Cells, Mechatronics, Grid Computing, Additive Manufacturing, Supergrids, Agricultural Drones, Ultraprivate Smartphones, Brain Mapping, Oculus Rift, Neuromorphic Chips, Genome Editing, Agile Robots, Internet of DNA, Nano-Architecture, Car-to-Car Communication, Liquid Biopsy, Megascale Desalination, Brain Organoids, Supercharged Photosynthesis just to name a few.

The first series will cover BMI – brain machine interface technologies and concepts.  A brain–computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a mind-machine interface (MMI), direct neural interface (DNI), or brain–machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device.

Emerging Technologies was originally published on E3 Technologies

January 14, 2016 Posted by | BioTech, Blue Technologies, Blue Technology, E3 Technologies, Green Technologies, Green Technology, NanoTech, New Technologies, NewsUpdate, Technology | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Comments Off on Emerging Technologies

Tibetan Sound Levitation Of Large Stones Witnessed By Scientist 10-3-3

Excerpt from ‘Anti-gravity and the World Grid’ edited by D.H.Childress, ch.8, Acoustic levitation of stones by Bruce Cathie, pp. 213-217

A New Zealand scientist recently gave me an intriguing extract from an article published in a German magazine, relating to a demonstration of levitation in Tibet. After obtaining a translation by a German journalist, in English, I was amazed at the information contained in the story, and was surprised that the article had slipped through the suppression net which tends to keep such knowledge from leaking out to the public.

All the similar types of stories that I had read up until now were generally devoid of specific information necessary to prove the veracity of the account. In this case a full set of geometric measurements were taken, and I discovered, to my great delight, that when they were converted to their equivalent geodetic measures, relating to grid harmonics the values gave a direct association with those in the unified harmonic equations published in my earlier works.

The following extracts are translations taken from the German article: ‘We know from the priests of the far east that they were able to lift heavy boulders up high mountains with the help of groups of various sounds…the knowledge of the various vibrations in the audio range demonstrates to a scientist of physics that a vibrating and condensed sound field can nullify the power of gravitation. Swedish engineer Olaf Alexanderson wrote about this phenomenon in the publication, Implosion No. 13.

The following report is based on observations which were made only 20 years ago in Tibet. I have this report from civil engineer and flight manager, Henry Kjelson, a friend of mine. He later on included this report in his book, The Lost Techniques. This is his report..

A Swedish doctor, Dr. Jarl, a friend of Kjelsons, studied at Oxford. During those times he became friends with a young Tibetan student. A couple of years later, it was 1939, Dr. Jarl made a journey to Egypt for the English Scientific Society. There he was seen by a messenger of his Tibetan friend, and urgently requested to come to Tibet to treat a high Lama.

After Dr. Jarl got the leave he followed the messenger and arrived after a long journey by plane and Yak caravans, at the monastery, where the old Lama and his friend who was now holding a high position were now living.

Dr. Jarl stayed there for some time, and because of his friendship with the Tibetans he learned a lot of things that other foreigners had no chance to hear about or observe.

One day his friend took him to a place in the neighbourhood of the monastery and showed him a sloping meadow which was surrounded in the north west by high cliffs. In one of the rock walls, at a height of about 250 metres was a big hole which looked like the entrance to a cave.

In front of this hole there was a platform on which the monks were building a rock wall. The only access to this platform was from the top of the cliff and the monks lowered themselves down with the help of ropes.

In the middle of the meadow, about 250 metres from the cliff, was a polished slab of rock with a bowl like cavity in the centre. The bowl had a diameter of one metre and a depth of 15 centimetres. A block of stone was manoeuvred into this cavity by Yak oxen. The block was one metre wide and one and one half metres long. Then 19 musical instruments were set in an arc of 90 degrees at a distance of 63 metres from the stone slab.

The radius of 63 metres was measured out accurately. The musical instruments consisted of 13 drums and 6 trumpets.(Ragdons) Eight drums had a cross-section of one metre, and a length of one and one half metres. Four drums were medium size with a cross-section of 0.7 metre and a length of one metre. The only small drum had a cross-section of 0.2 metres and a length of 0.3 metres. All the trumpets were the same size.

They had a length of 3.12 metres and an opening of 0.3 metres. The big drums and all the trumpets were fixed on mounts which could be adjusted with staffs in the direction of the slab of stone. The big drums were made of 1mm thick sheet iron, and had a weight of 150kg. They were built in five sections. All the drums were open at one end, while the other end had a bottom of metal, on which the monks beat with big leather clubs. Behind each instrument was a row of monks.

When the stone was in position the monk behind the small drum gave a signal to start the concert. The small drum had a very sharp sound, and could be heard even with the other instruments making a terrible din. All the monks were singing and chanting a prayer, slowly increasing the tempo of this unbelievable noise. During the first four minutes nothing happened, then as the speed of the drumming, and the noise, increased, the big stone block started to rock and sway, and suddenly it took off into the air with an increasing speed in the direction of the platform in front of the cave hole 250 metres high. After three minutes of ascent it landed on the platform.

Continuously they brought new blocks to the meadow, and the monks using this method, transported 5 to 6 blocks per hour on a parabolic flight track approximately 500 metres long and 250 metres high. From time to time a stone split, and the monks moved the split stones away. Quite an unbelievable task.

Dr. Jarl knew about the hurling of the stones. Tibetan experts like Linaver, Spalding and Huc had spoken about it, but they had never seen it. So Dr. Jarl was the first foreigner who had the opportunity to see this remarkable spectacle. Because he had the opinion in the beginning that he was the victim of mass-psychosis he made two films of the incident. The films showed exactly the same things that he had witnessed.

The English Society for which Dr. Jarl was working confiscated the two films and declared them classified. They will not be released until 1990. This action is rather hard to explain, or understand.: End of trans.’

The fact that the films were immediately classified is not very hard to understand once the given measurements are transposed into their geometric equivalents. It then becomes evident that the monks in Tibet are fully conversant with the laws governing the structure of matter, which the scientists in the modern day western world are now frantically exploring. It appears, from the calculations, that the prayers being chanted by the monks did not have any direct bearing on the fact that the stones were levitated from the ground.

The reaction was not initiated by the religious fervour of the group, but by the superior scientific knowledge held by the high priests. The secret is in the geometric placement of the musical instruments in relation to the stones to be levitated, and the harmonic tuning of the drums and trumpets. The combined loud chanting of the priests using their voices at a certain pitch and rhythm most probably adds to the combined effect, but the subject matter of the chant, I believe, would be of no consequence.

The sound waves being generated by the combination were directed in such a way that an anti-gravitational effect was created at the centre of focus (position of the stones) and around the periphery, or the arc, of a third of a circle through which the stones moved.

If we analyse the diagram published with the original article, then compare it with the modified diagram, we become aware of the following coordinates, and the implications, when compared with my previously published works.

The distance between the stone block and the central pivot of the drum supports is shown as 63 metres. The large drums were said to be one and one half metres long, so the distance from the block to the rear face of each drum could be close to 63.75 metres considering that the pivot point would be near the centre of balance.

My theoretical analysis, by calculator, indicates that the exact distance would be 63.7079 metres for the optimum harmonic reaction. By mathematical conversion we find that this value is equal to 206.2648062 geodetic feet, which is harmonically equal to the length of the earths radius in seconds of arc (relative to the earths surface) 206264.8062. This also leads us to the following associations:

(206.2648062 x 2) = 412.5296124 This number squared = 170180.68 which is the theoretical harmonic of mass at the earths surface.

The four rows of monks standing behind the instruments in a quarter circle added to the production of sound by their loud chanting and must be taken in to account in regards to the geometric pattern.. If we assume that they were standing approximately two feet apart, we can add a calculated value of 8.08865 geodetic feet to the radius of the complete group. This gives a maximum radius of: 214.3534583 geodetic feet.

The circumference of a complete circle with this radius would be: 1346.822499 geodetic feet.

Which is a half harmonic of 2693.645 (unified field)

The distance from the stone block to a calculated point within the cliff face and the height of the ledge on the cliff face from ground level is given as 250 metres. If we can now imagine that the raised stone blocks pass through a quarter arc of a circle during their flight from ground level to the hole in the cliff face, then the pivot point of the radius would be coincident with this position.

The theoretical radius was found to be: 249.8767262 metres which very closely approximates the estimate. This converts to 809.016999 geodetic feet. The diameter of the full circle would therefore be: 1618.034 geodetic feet.

A circle with this diameter has a circumference of 5083.203728 units, which can be divided into three even lengths of 1694..4 It therefore appears that the levitated blocks, once resonated to a certain frequency, would tend to carry out a flight path that is coincident to one third of a circle. The spacial distance being equivalent to the mass harmonic at the center of a light field, 1694443.

The instruments used by the group, in theory, would also have been tuned to produce harmonic wave forms associated with the unified fields. The given measurements are in rounded off parts of a metre but in practice some slight variations from these measurements would be expected in order to create the appropriate resonating cavities within the instruments

The geometric arrangement, and the number of instruments in the group would also be a most important factor.

If the given measurement for each type of drum is modified fractionally and converted to its geometric equivalent an interesting value for the cubic capacity is evident.

The large drums:

1.517201563 metres long, 1.000721361 metres wide = 58.94627524 geodetic inches long, 38.88 geodetic inches wide = 69984 cubic inches capacity = 40.5 cubic geodetic feet capacity.

Therefore the cubic capacity for eight drums = 324 cubic geodetic feet This harmonic value is built into the world grid and is equal to half the harmonic 648.

The medium size drums:

1.000721361 metres long, 0.695189635 metres wide = 38.88 geodetic inches long, 27.00948944 geodetic inches wide = 22276.59899 cubic geodetic inches capacity = 12.89155034 cubic geodetic feet capacity.

Therefore the cubic capacity for four drums: = 51.56620136 cubic geodetic feet

14.97414932 centimetres = 5.895334377 inches = 5.817764187 geodetic inches = 0.484813682 geodetic feet

As the dish-shape was focused upward towards the stone block to be levitated it would be expected that some type of reaction would take place which had an effect on the mass. The geometric shape of the cavity does seem to be engineered in such a way the projected frequency vortex causes a reciprocal reaction to the mass harmonic of each block. The reciprocal of 0.484813682 = 2.062648055 Twice this value: = 4.12529611 The square of this value: = 17.018068 (the harmonic of mass at the earth’s surface.17018068

I believe that there is not much doubt that the Tibetans had possession of the secrets relating to the geometric structure of matter, and the methods of manipulating the harmonic values, but if we can grasp the mathematical theory behind the incident, and extend the application, then an even more fascinating idea presents itself.

Tibetan Sound Levitation Of Large Stones Witnessed By Scientist 10-3-3 was originally published on E3 Technologies

January 11, 2016 Posted by | Blue Technologies, Blue Technology, E3 Technologies, NewsUpdate, Technology | , | Comments Off on Tibetan Sound Levitation Of Large Stones Witnessed By Scientist 10-3-3

Tiny Bubbles Explain Puzzle about Light from Sound

Sonoluminescence – the physical phenomenon by which sound turns into light¿is as mystifying as a magic trick. Despite 70 years of trying, scientists still cannot fully explain how a bubble of air in water focuses acoustic energy a trillionfold to spit out picosecond bursts of ultraviolet radiation. Initially physicists attributed the flashes to friction. In the late 1980s, though, they came to see that bubbles in a sound wave’s path expanded and rapidly collapsed, heating the gas inside them to temperatures hotter than the sun’s surface. This collapse and heat, they determined, created a glowing plasma.

The sonoluminescence effect was first discovered at the University of Cologne in 1934 as a result of work on sonar. The collapsing bubble generates an imploding shock wave that compresses and heats the gas at the center of the bubble to extremely high temperature. It was realized that the temperature inside the bubble was hot enough to melt steel. Interest in sonoluminescence was renewed when an inner temperature of such a bubble well above one million kelvins was postulated. This temperature is thus far not conclusively proven; rather, recent experiments conducted by the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign indicate temperatures around 20000K.

Sonoluminescence can occur when a sound wave of sufficient intensity induces a gaseous cavity within a liquid to collapse quickly. This cavity may take the form of a pre-existing bubble, or may be generated through a process known as cavitation. Sonoluminescence in the laboratory can be made to be stable, so that a single bubble will expand and collapse over and over again in a periodic fashion, emitting a burst of light each time it collapses. For this to occur, a standing acoustic wave is set up within a liquid, and the bubble will sit at a pressure anti-node of the standing wave. The frequencies of resonance depend on the shape and size of the container in which the bubble is contained.

Some facts about sonoluminescence:

  • The light flashes from the bubbles are extremely short—between 35 and a few hundred picoseconds long—with peak intensities of the order of 1–10 mW.
  • The bubbles are very small when they emit the light—about 1 micrometre in diameter—depending on the ambient fluid (e.g., water) and the gas content of the bubble (e.g., atmospheric air).
  • Single-bubble sonoluminescence pulses can have very stable periods and positions. In fact, the frequency of light flashes can be more stable than the rated frequency stability of the oscillator making the sound waves driving them. However, the stability analyses of the bubble show that the bubble itself undergoes significant geometric instabilities, due to, for example, the Bjerknes forces and Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities.
  • The addition of a small amount of noble gas (such as helium, argon, or xenon) to the gas in the bubble increases the intensity of the emitted light.

Spectral measurements have given bubble temperatures in the range from 2300 K to 5100 K, the exact temperatures depending on experimental conditions including the composition of the liquid and gas. Detection of very high bubble temperatures by spectral methods is limited due to the opacity of liquids to short wavelength light characteristic of very high temperatures.

Writing in Nature, chemists David J. Flannigan and Kenneth S. Suslick describe a method of determining temperatures based on the formation of plasmas. Using argon bubbles in sulfuric acid, their data show the presence of ionized molecular oxygen O2+, sulfur monoxide, and atomic argon populating high-energy excited states, which confirms a hypothesis that the bubbles have a hot plasma core. The ionization and excitation energy of dioxygenyl cations, which they observed, is 18 electronvolts. From this they conclude the core temperatures reach at least 20,000 Kelvin.

The dynamics of the motion of the bubble is characterized to a first approximation by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation (named after Lord Rayleigh and Milton Plesset):

R\ddot{R} + \frac{3}{2}\dot{R}^{2} = \frac{1}{\rho}\left(p_g - P_0 - P(t) - 4\mu\frac{\dot{R}}{R} - \frac{2\gamma}{R}\right)

This is an approximate equation that is derived from the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations (written in spherical coordinate system) and describes the motion of the radius of the bubble R as a function of time t. Here, μ is the viscosity, p the pressure, and γ the surface tension. The over-dots represent time derivatives. This equation, though approximate, has been shown to give good estimates on the motion of the bubble under the acoustically driven field except during the final stages of collapse. Both simulation and experimental measurement show that during the critical final stages of collapse, the bubble wall velocity exceeds the speed of sound of the gas inside the bubble. Thus a more detailed analysis of the bubble’s motion is needed beyond Rayleigh-Plesset to explore the additional energy focusing that an internally formed shock wave might produce.

The mechanism of the phenomenon of sonoluminescence is unknown. Hypotheses include: hotspot, bremsstrahlung radiation, collision-induced radiation and corona discharges, nonclassical light, proton tunneling, electrodynamic jets and fractoluminescent jets (now largely discredited due to contrary experimental evidence).

An important factor is that the bubble contains mainly inert noble gas such as argon or xenon (air contains about 1% argon, and the amount dissolved in water is too great; for sonoluminescence to occur, the concentration must be reduced to 20–40% of its equilibrium value) and varying amounts of water vapor. Chemical reactions cause nitrogen and oxygen to be removed from the bubble after about one hundred expansion-collapse cycles. The bubble will then begin to emit light “Evidence for Gas Exchange in Single-Bubble Sonoluminescence”. The light emission of highly compressed noble gas is exploited technologically in the argon flash devices.

During bubble collapse, the inertia of the surrounding water causes high pressure and high temperature, reaching around 10,000 Kelvin in the interior of the bubble, causing the ionization of a small fraction of the noble gas present. The amount ionized is small enough for the bubble to remain transparent, allowing volume emission; surface emission would produce more intense light of longer duration, dependent on wavelength, contradicting experimental results. Electrons from ionized atoms interact mainly with neutral atoms, causing thermal bremsstrahlung radiation. As the wave hits a low energy trough, the pressure drops, allowing electrons to recombine with atoms and light emission to cease due to this lack of free electrons. This makes for a 160-picosecond light pulse for argon (even a small drop in temperature causes a large drop in ionization, due to the large ionization energy relative to photon energy). This description is simplified from the literature above, which details various steps of differing duration from 15 microseconds (expansion) to 100 picoseconds (emission).

Computations based on the theory presented in the review produce radiation parameters (intensity and duration time versus wavelength) that match experimental results with errors no larger than expected due to some simplifications (e.g., assuming a uniform temperature in the entire bubble), so it seems the phenomenon of sonoluminescence is at least roughly explained, although some details of the process remain obscure.

Any discussion of sonoluminescence must include a detailed analysis of metastability. Sonoluminescence in this respect is what is physically termed a bounded phenomenon meaning that the sonoluminescence exists in a bounded region of parameter space for the bubble; a coupled magnetic field being one such parameter. The magnetic aspects of sonoluminescence are very well documented.

An unusually exotic hypothesis of sonoluminescence, which has received much popular attention, is the Casimir energy hypothesis suggests that the light in sonoluminescence is generated by the vacuum within the bubble in a process similar to Hawking radiation, the radiation generated at the event horizon of black holes. According to this vacuum energy explanation, since quantum theory holds that vacuum contains virtual particles, the rapidly moving interface between water and gas converts virtual photons into real photons. This is related to the Unruh effect or the Casimir effect. If true, sonoluminescence may be the first observable example of quantum vacuum radiation. The argument has been made that sonoluminescence releases too large an amount of energy and releases the energy on too short a time scale to be consistent with the vacuum energy explanation, although other credible sources argue the vacuum energy explanation might yet prove to be correct.

Some have argued that the Rayleigh-Plesset equation described above is unreliable for predicting bubble temperatures and that actual temperatures in sonoluminescing systems can be far higher than 20,000 kelvins. Some research claims to have measured temperatures as high as 100,000 kelvins, and speculates temperatures could reach into the millions of kelvins. Temperatures this high could cause thermonuclear fusion. This possibility is sometimes referred to as bubble fusion and is likened to the implosion design used in the fusion component of thermonuclear weapons.

Pistol shrimp (also called snapping shrimp) produce a type of sonoluminescence from a collapsing bubble caused by quickly snapping its claw. The animal snaps a specialized claw shut to create a cavitation bubble that generates acoustic pressures of up to 80 kPa at a distance of 4 cm from the claw. As it extends out from the claw, the bubble reaches speeds of 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) and releases a sound reaching 218 decibels. The pressure is strong enough to kill small fish. The light produced is of lower intensity than the light produced by typical sonoluminescence and is not visible to the naked eye. The light and heat produced may have no direct significance, as it is the shockwave produced by the rapidly collapsing bubble which these shrimp use to stun or kill prey. However, it is the first known instance of an animal producing light by this effect and was whimsically dubbed “shrimpoluminescence” upon its discovery in 2001. It has subsequently been discovered that another group of crustaceans, the mantis shrimp, contains species whose club-like forelimbs can strike so quickly and with such force as to induce sonoluminescent cavitation bubbles upon impact.

Tiny Bubbles Explain Puzzle about Light from Sound was originally published on E3 Technologies

January 11, 2016 Posted by | BioTech, Blue Technologies, Blue Technology, E3 Technologies, Green Technologies, New Technologies, NewsUpdate, Technology | , , , , , | Comments Off on Tiny Bubbles Explain Puzzle about Light from Sound